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Master of Science in Nursing (MSN): Home

Johns Hopkins Nursing EBP: Levels of Evidence

Level I
Experimental study, randomized controlled trial (RCT)
Systematice review of RCTs, with or without meta-analysis

Level II
Quasi-experimental Study
Systematic review of a combination of RCTs and quasi-experimental, or quasi-experimental studies only, with or without meta-analysis.

Level III
Non-experimental study
Systematic review of a combination of RCTs, quasi-experimental and non-experimental, or non-experimental studies only, with or without meta-analysis.
Qualitative study or systematice review, with or without meta-analysis

Level IV
Opinion of respected authorities and/or nationally recognized expert committees/consensus panels based on scientific evidence.
         - Clinical practice guidelines
         - Consensus panels

Level V
Based on experiential and non-research evidence.
      - Literature reviews
      - Quality improvement, program or financial evaluation
      - Case reports
      - Opinion of nationally recognized expert(s) based on experiential evidence

Dearholt, S., Dang, Deborah, & Sigma Theta Tau International. (2012). Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-based Practice : Models and Guidelines.

About This Guide

Aloha MSN students,

This guide is designed to help you with your research for the MSN program. It contains a variety of resources including databases, books, tips, and much more. If you have any questions, comments, or suggestions, please use the information on the right to contact me.  I am here to assist you so don't hesitate to contact me. 

~Elizabeth Torres 


Recommended Databases for NUR 6020

Evidence Based Practice

Evidence Based Practice (EBP) is the integration of clinical expertise, patient values, and the best research evidence into the decision making process for patient care.

When you search for the best research evidence you might want to start by finding already-published evidence-based reviews, guidelines and protocols. These are articles in which the authors have already searched medical databases for the available literature on a medical topic and analyzed it to determine if the evidence supports a specific treatment. Note:systematic reviews, clinical guidelines and meta-analysis are secondary sources.

For your NUR 6020 assignment  you must use primary resources but you can use secondary sources such as systematic reviews to identify the important research studies that have been published on your topic.

Subject Guide

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Elizabeth Torres

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Selected Nursing Research Links

Searching with PICO(T)

1. Develop keywords for each of applicable PICO(T) elements of your topic.

2.  Start your search by combine 2 or 3 PICO(T) elements.

3. Look for subject headings that represent your keyword and PICO (T) elements.

4. Apply limiters depending on your topic, consider what is the best type of studies.