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Natural Sciences: Articles

A-Z List Help and Quick Links

To view databases within a specific subject area:

Select your subject from the All Subjects drop-down menu on the left side of the page.

To view specific types of databases (for example, Ebooks, Encyclopedias/Dictionaries, or Videos):

Select the database type from the All Database Types drop-down menu in the middle.

To go to a specific database:

Type the database name in the Find Databases by Title box and hit Go, or click on the first letter of the database in the A-Z list.

What is the DOI System?

APA Citation: Citing an Article with a DOI and Without a DOI-Tutorial (UMUC Library)

Crossref DOI display: Display guidelines for Crossref DOIs (

Digital Object Identifier (DOI) (APA Style Blog)

Key Facts on Digital Object Identifier System (

Frequently Asked Questions about DOI System (

Go to to resolve a DOI Name (Type or paste a DOI name into the search box provided)

Looking for DOI? Go to

HPU Discovery

Natural Sciences Databases

1. Identify and develop your topic:

      --Find a topic that interests you

      --State your topic as a question
         (e.g. "What effect does the plastic debris have on the marine ecology?" )

      --Identify the main concepts and keywords
         "What effect does the plastic debris have on the marine ecology?"

2. Locate a background information on your topic using 
   Specialized/Subject-specific Encyclopedias and Online Encyclopedias 
       --Provide more extensive coverage of a topic than a General Encyclopedia.

       --Help you to get a better understanding of your topic and clarify your ideas

       --Supply the keywords that are commonly used in a discipline

       --Provide related articles in Bibliography (References)

3. Create a list including;

       --Search terms: relevant terms, synonyms, brooder & narrower terms, or 
         descriptive phrases that describe your topic

       --Call numbers you discovered for relevant books 

       --Subject Headings: browse LCSH online to look up broader terms, narrower 
         terms, variants, and related terms.
         (Enter keyword or phrase, select "LC Subject Headings," and then click "Search")
       --Names of experts and organizations

       --Titles of scholarly journals related to your topic

4. Select Resources considering;    

       --What are you going to research?

       --What are your information requirements?
         (Consider the type, quantity, and format)

       --What kind of assignment do you have to complete?

       --How much information do you need?

       --What types of publications do you want to read?
        (books, newspaper, journal, or consumer magazine articles, government
         documents, & primary sources)

       --What format do you need? (audio-Visual, print, electronic)

5. Search library’s HPU Discovery to locate:


       --Books & Ebooks 

       -- Reference Books

       -- VHS, DVD, & Streaming Videos

6. Browse your libraries’ shelves for the call number discovered in step 5.

7. Search library’s A-Z Databases to locate:


       --Online Encyclopedias (Reference & Statistics)

       --Journal & Magazine (Consumer or Trade) Articles

       --Newspaper Articles

       --HPU Graduate Professional Papers
        (On Campus Access Only)

8. Search Tips

       --Do a trial search, using a few of the specific key terms for your topic.

       --Review the first few articles and focus on the subject terms used.

       --Revise your search using;

             *Boolean Operators [ AND, OR, NOT ] to combine 
              more than two search terms.

             *Quotation marks [ "  " ] for searching  phrases.

             * Wild card characters [ ? & * ]

       --Refine or narrow your search using limiters such as date range, article 
           type, full-text availability, etc.

       --Revise search again for more focus, if necessary 

9. Evaluate what you found: skim everything you locate to determine which resources may be the most useful.

10.Revise/refine your search as necessary: repeat steps 5 through 9 as necessary.

George, M. W., (2008). Strategy and Tools for Discovery.  The Elements of Library Research (pp. 67-69). New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

If you only have a citation of an article, try one of the options below to locate the full-text of the article. 

        1. Click the "Find It!" link, near a citation in an online database, if you're in the middle of
            searching the databases.

Example: Getting the Full Text in EBSCO Databases

  1. Go to the Libraries homepage, search for an article title in our Library catalog, HPU Discovery.
  2. Go to the Libraries homepage, click on Periodicals and type a title of journal or title of article into the search box.

Journal Title: Food Microbiology    21 (2004), pp. 535–541

Article Title: Bacteriological quality and safety of raw milk in Malaysia
(Note: you would also need to input at least one more information on the article such as author(s), Journal/publication title, ISSN, etc.)

  1. Go to the Libraries homepage, click on Databases and then click on the letter G for "Google Scholar at HPU".  From there, enter a title of article, author(s) or DOI name into the search box.


Article title: Bacteriological quality and safety of raw milk in Malaysia

Author(s): Fook Yee Chye, Aminah Abdullah, Mohd Khan Ayob

DOI: 10.1016/

  1. Go back to the A-Z Databases, click on the letter and scroll all the way down, and then click on Crossref Metadata Search. From there, enter or paste a DOI name/ a title of an article into the text box provided.


Article title: Bacteriological quality and safety of raw milk in Malaysia

DOI: 10.1016/


If any of the options above don't work, then request articles via Interlibrary Loan (ILL) and Document Delivery Services for the HPU Libraries (Use the Journal Article Online Request Form)


Here is a quick summary of the search process.

1. Once your topic is decided, select the appropriate databases for your subject.

2. Do a trial search, using a few of the specific key terms for your topic.

3. Review the full record of the first ten or more articles.

4. Focus only on the subject terms in the results:
-Did you select a keyword that is their subject heading?
-Is there an alternate subject term to use?
-Are there some terms that will help you narrow your retrieval?

5. Revise your search using the subject terms found.

6. Narrow further, if necessary, by adding more terms or other limiters available.

7. Check if you need to adjust the time coverage for your topic.

Reminder: the titles of articles do not always indicate the content of the articles (their subject focus), but if you have done a subject search then you know the articles will cover your topic.

Finding Peer-Reviewed Articles

Peer Review in Three Minutes (Video)
(NCSU Libraries)

What is a Peer-Reviewed Article? (Library Guides)  (Lloyd Sealy Library ) 

How to recognize peer-reviewed (refereed) journals (Library Guides)
(Angelo State University Library)

How do I Find Peer-Reviewed Articles?  (Lloyd Sealy Library/ HPU Library ) 


How Do I Find Peer-Reviewed Articles?

The easiest and fastest way to find peer-reviewed articles on sciences is to;

Search the databases that include only peer-reviewed /scholarly /academic journals/books primarily on science, technology and medicine.

-- ACS Publications


-- Nature Journal Online

-- PubMed @ HPU

-- SAGE Premier

-- Science

-- ScienceDirect

-- SpringerLink

-- Taylor & Francis

Search the multi-subject databases, many of which include peer-reviewed journals: EBSCO databases (EBSCOhost Main Databases) and Gale Databases.

-- Choose Databases:

   To search within a single database, click the database name listed below.

   To select more than one database to search, check the boxes next to the databases and click Continue.

-- Choose the Advanced Search option. On the search screen, look for a check-box

   that allows you to limit your results to peer-reviewed only.

-- Organize your results by source. For example, the database Academic Search

   Complete will let you choose the tab "Peer-Reviewed Journals."

Search Google Scholar @ HPU that include journal articles, government reports, case law, book chapters, patent.

-- Sign in to your Google account and set up your settings for search results, library links, bibliographic management software, etc.

-- Uncheck the box for "Case law" and check off "Articles"

-- Search by keywords, phrases, DOI, authors

-- Uncheck the box for "include patents" or "include citations" if wanted.

-- Add “–book” to remove book chapters from the results list.

-- Use library's UlrichsWeb as needed to see if an article found from Google Scholar is a

   journal article or government report.

Source: How Do I Find Peer-Reviewed Articles?

Format of the Journal Articles

Format of Research Articles

-The modern scientific journal often has a set format. (IMRAD)

1. A summary or Abstract

2. Introduction

3. Materials & Methods

4. Results or Observations

5. Discussion

6. Conclusion

7. References or
    Literature cited 

Format of Review Articles
by Electronic Journal of Biotechnology

Structure of a Theoretical Research/Theory Papers
by School of English and American Studies Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest