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Style Guides: APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian & AP: Chicago/Turabian

Chicago Manual Style

In 2017, Chicago Press published a new manual of style. 

Some of the major changes include:

  • The use of Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) for books, format and placement of (1.33, fig. 1.1)
  • The use of ibid. is now discouraged in favor of shortened citations. (14.34)
  • In Author-Date references for journal citations, when the date of publication includes month and day, the year may be repeated to avoid ambiguity. (15.14; 15.49, 15.50)

Turabian Manual

The Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses and Dissertations has remained relevant for generations both by drawing on years of tradition and by evolving to respond to new sources for research. In 2013 the University of Chicago Press published the latest edition to this manual.

Note: HPU Libraries does not have a copy of the 8th edition only the 7th edition.

General Information

The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems, the Humanities style (notes and bibliography) and the Author-Date system. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars.

The Humanities style is preferred by many in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in notes and, often, a bibliography. It accommodates a variety of sources, including esoteric ones less appropriate to the author-date system.

The more concise Author-Date system has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

The Chicago and Turabian styles are nearly identical.

Kate Turabian, the dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago for over 30 years, developed her guide for students and researchers writing papers, theses, and dissertations. Her manual is based on the University of Chicago Press's Manual of Style and departs from it in few places. "Turabian," as her guide is called, synthesizes the rules most important for students' papers and other scholarly research not intended for publication, and omits some of the publishing details and options that "Chicago" provides.